STD Awareness: 10 Myths About Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The Internet is brimming with contradictory claims about sexual health, and you don’t know what to believe. Your friends give you advice, but you’re not sure if it sounds right. To make things worse, you might not have had evidence-based, medically accurate sex education in your school. In this edition of our STD Awareness series, we’ll take on a few myths about sexually transmitted diseases to help you sort fact from fiction.

1 MYTH: You can tell if someone has an STD by looking at them.
You might expect that if someone has an STD, their genitals would have blisters, warts, or noticeable discharge. But your partner looks fine, so you might think there’s no need to ask when his or her last STD test was.

However, while many people with STDs do have visible symptoms, they’re the exception rather than the rule. For example, three out of four women and half of men with chlamydia have no symptoms. Herpes is often spread when there are no symptoms present. Someone can be infected with HIV — and capable of transmitting it to others — and go years without showing any signs. A quick visual inspection can’t tell you very much about someone’s STD status.

2 MYTH: You can’t get an STD from oral sex.
While it is generally true that oral sex presents less of a risk for contracting STDs, this risk is not trivial. Most STDs can be passed along by oral sex, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis B, herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HIV. You can reduce your risk by using barrier methods like condoms and dental dams consistently and correctly.

3 MYTH: Condoms can’t prevent the spread of HIV.
Many proponents of abstinence-only education state that condoms don’t protect against HIV, claiming that latex condoms have holes that are large enough for viruses to pass through. This claim isn’t backed by evidence. An intact latex condom dramatically reduces your risk of being exposed to sexually transmitted viruses such as HIV. (It is true that a lambskin condom does not provide adequate protection against HIV.) Continue reading

Over 90 Percent of What Planned Parenthood Does, Part 9: Treating Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infections occur when certain bacteria invade the urethra.

Welcome to the latest installment of “Over 90 Percent of What Planned Parenthood Does,” a series on Planned Parenthood Advocates of Arizona’s blog that highlights Planned Parenthood’s diverse array of services — the ones Jon Kyl doesn’t know about.

A urinary tract infection (UTI) affects the urinary system, most notably the urethra. Symptoms might include an increased urge to urinate, accompanied by a burning sensation; urine might be cloudy or bloody. Among adults, UTIs are 50 times more common in people with vaginas than in people with penises, probably due to the shorter distance bacteria travel from the bowel. If you have a vagina, there is more than a 50 percent chance that you’ll have at least one UTI in your lifetime. And, if you’re unlucky enough to be in this group, there’s a 20 percent chance that you’ll develop recurrent UTIs (three or more infections yearly). Annually, UTIs prompt an estimated 8 million visits to health-care providers, costing at least $1 billion.

How can urinary tract infections be prevented?

Although symptoms often recede without medical intervention, it’s important to seek treatment for persistent UTIs because the infection could spread. If you are or have been sexually active, it is also important to ensure you don’t actually have a sexually transmitted disease.

Causes of UTIs

When certain species of fecal bacteria wend their way from the bowel into your urethra, they might initiate an infection. Up to 90 percent of UTIs are caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli; the rest are caused by Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and a few other species. Continue reading