Over 90 Percent of What Planned Parenthood Does, Part 23: Preconception Counseling for a Healthy, Informed Pregnancy

Welcome to the latest installment of “Over 90 Percent of What Planned Parenthood Does,” a series on Planned Parenthood Advocates of Arizona’s blog that highlights Planned Parenthood’s diverse array of services — the ones Jon Kyl never knew about.

pregnancyFew moments in life are as important and complex as when a woman makes the decision of whether and when to have children. There are many considerations to take into account when planning to conceive, many of which can affect not only the baby, but the mother as well.

Preconception counseling, a service of Planned Parenthood Arizona, can provide those who wish to conceive with valuable information about their own health, suggestions about how to best manage their wellness for pregnancy, and education about a range of outcomes (including the possibility of miscarriage). Preconception counseling can assist you in creating an environment focused on optimal health for both you and your future child.

These counseling services include:

  • targeted medical history with focus on teratogenic exposures, ethnic background, and family history
  • social history with focus on risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), tobacco, alcohol, and street drug use
  • history of chronic illnesses
  • physical exam
  • labs as indicated (STDs, diabetes screening, etc.)
  • genetic counseling referrals as indicated
  • immunization review
  • folic acid utilization
  • review of current medications and possible hazardous exposures

The above list might seem long and detailed, but upon closer examination, you might not know what all of these things mean. What are teratogenic exposures? What does folic acid have to do with a healthy pregnancy? Let’s look at some of these topics in more depth. Continue reading

My Partner Just Told Me They Have Herpes. I Don’t. Now What?

handsHas your new partner just informed you that he or she has herpes? People have many reactions when hearing this kind of news — and, depending on how informed you are about herpes, your reaction might be tinged with panic or fear. If that’s your instinct, try to keep those feelings in check: Your partner might be feeling very vulnerable, so it’s best not to react with shunning or shaming.


More than 80 percent of people with genital herpes are unaware of their infections.


By being open about his or her STD status, your partner has demonstrated a sense of responsibility toward your sexual health and a respect for your ability to make informed decisions. It’s possible that your partner was not given this same consideration by the person from whom he or she contracted herpes — some people with genital herpes choose not to disclose their status, while most don’t even know they carry the virus in the first place.

Herpes is more widespread than most of us realize. It can be caused by one of two strains of the herpes simplex virus: HSV-1 or HSV-2. While HSV-1 is more commonly associated with cold sores and HSV-2 is more commonly associated with genital herpes, either virus can infect the genital area. One estimate states that 1 out of 5 American females and 1 out of 9 American males between 14 to 49 years of age have a genital HSV-2 infection.

Now that you know your partner has herpes, you might have some questions. How easy is it to transmit genital herpes from one partner to another? What can you do to minimize your chances of catching the virus? And, while it is certainly stigmatized in our culture, is herpes something to fear? Continue reading

STD Awareness: How Can I Protect Myself if My Partner Has Herpes?

herpes protectionHas your partner, or potential partner, recently informed you that he or she has been diagnosed with genital herpes? After thinking about it, did you decide to continue with the relationship, despite not being infected with the virus that causes genital herpes yourself? Congratulations — the two of you are now a “discordant couple,” which means that one of you has genital herpes and the other doesn’t. While you might have come to the conclusion that acquiring a herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection below the belt won’t be the end of the world, you still might want to stay discordant — and do everything you can to minimize chances of virus transmission.


Condoms, medication, and abstinence during outbreaks can reduce risk for herpes transmission.


You can read all about herpes elsewhere on this blog, but here’s a quick rundown: Genital herpes can be caused by one of two strains of the herpes simplex virus: HSV-1 or HSV-2. While HSV-1 is more commonly associated with cold sores and HSV-2 is more commonly associated with genital herpes, either virus can infect the genital area. One estimate states that 1 out of 6 Americans between 14 to 49 years of age has a genital HSV-2 infection. Since genital herpes infections can also be caused by HSV-1, the number of people with genital herpes is actually higher.

Barring total abstinence from all sexual activity, you won’t be able to protect yourself completely from acquiring HSV — but there are many steps that you and your partner can take to decrease risk. Studies on discordant couples show that viral transmission can be reduced with condoms, antiviral herpes medications, practicing abstinence when symptoms are present, and patient education.

Condoms

Latex condoms protect against most STDs, especially fluid-borne infections like HIV and gonorrhea. But condoms also provide some protection against STDs that are transmitted by skin-to-skin contact, including genital herpes. One large study found that condom usage was associated with lower rates of HSV-2 acquisition — the more frequently someone used condoms, the lower the risk. Unsurprisingly, risk was also associated with frequency of sex acts: People having vaginal or anal intercourse more than twice weekly were 77 percent more likely to acquire HSV-2 than people having less sex. Continue reading

Over 90 Percent of What Planned Parenthood Does, Part 18: Cholesterol Testing

vegetablesWelcome to the latest installment of “Over 90 Percent of What Planned Parenthood Does,” a series on Planned Parenthood Advocates of Arizona’s blog that highlights Planned Parenthood’s diverse array of services — the ones Jon Kyl never knew about.


It’s National Cholesterol Education Month.


Heart disease and stroke are leading causes of death in our country, and high cholesterol is a major risk factor for both of these conditions. Most people with high cholesterol don’t have it under control, even though it is both preventable and treatable. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program, adults 20 years of age and older should have their cholesterol checked every five years. And, with two out of three adults suffering from high cholesterol, keeping track of your cholesterol is important.

What is cholesterol?

plaqueCholesterol is a waxy substance, sort of like fat, that can coat the walls of your arteries, forming a “plaque.” This is also referred to as “hardening of the arteries” or atherosclerosis. You’ll often hear comments like, “Those fast-food cheeseburgers will clog your arteries” — regularly eating food that is high in saturated fat can increase the amount of cholesterol that circulates in your bloodstream, increasing your risk for health problems. When arteries have too much plaque, they narrow, and your heart has to work harder to pump blood through your body.

Our bodies need cholesterol to function, but they’re able to synthesize it themselves — unlike many vitamins and minerals, we can make our own cholesterol and don’t need to get it from food. Cholesterol comes in two types: “good” cholesterol, or high density lipoprotein (HDL); and “bad” cholesterol, or low density lipoprotein (LDL). “High cholesterol” refers to high levels of “bad” (LDL) cholesterol in the blood. LDL is what forms plaque in the arteries, while HDL prevents plaque buildup, likely by carrying the LDL to the liver, which processes it before it’s excreted from the body. Continue reading

STD Awareness: Asymptomatic Shedding of Herpes

Q: Can I catch herpes if my partner isn’t having an outbreak?
A: Yes, your partner can transmit the virus even if he or she isn’t experiencing symptoms. In fact, most genital herpes infections are transmitted in the absence of symptoms.

When most people think about genital herpes, they think about the symptoms that are associated with it: clusters of blistery sores around the genitals or buttocks. But most genital herpes infections don’t have symptoms — they are asymptomatic — or the symptoms are so mild or nonspecific that the person suffering from them doesn’t even make the mental connection. It is estimated that only 10 to 15 percent of people with herpes exhibit symptoms, which may be a silver lining for the millions who unknowingly carry the virus, but it also helps it spread more easily.

What is genital herpes, anyway?

Genital herpes can be caused by two types of herpes simplex viruses — either herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The difference between the two viruses is that HSV-1 is more active when it infects the facial region, where it can cause cold sores; HSV-2 is more active when it infects the genitals. Genital infections with HSV-1 tend to be milder than genital infections with HSV-2. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that, among Americans 14 to 49 years old, 1 out of 5 women and 1 out of 9 men have a genital HSV-2 infection. Because that stat doesn’t count genital HSV-1 infections, the overall number of people with genital herpes is actually higher.

An “outbreak” occurs when genital herpes symptoms appear. The most well-known symptom is a cluster of blisters or open sores in the genital or rectal area. Continue reading

Endometriosis Treatment

endo medsIt’s still March, so it’s still Endometriosis Awareness Month! Today we’ll be looking at endometriosis treatment questions and answers. If you missed the first two posts in this series, you can click to read more about an overview of endometriosis as well as info about diagnosing endometriosis.


Why are there so many treatment options? Which one is best?

There are so many options because there is no “magic bullet” option — that is, no single treatment that works best for everyone. The two main categories of treatment include medication and surgery, but each option has its own benefits and drawbacks. When deciding on the best option for a given individual, some helpful questions to consider might be:

  • Do I have any current health concerns that would render some treatments unsafe? What types of health risks are acceptable to me?
  • Am I currently trying to conceive, or will I be in the next six to 12 months? Will I ever want to be pregnant in the future?
  • Aside from significant health risks, what types of factors — side effects, treatment frequency or duration, cost — would make a treatment difficult for me? How long do I need this treatment to last before I can reevaluate?

For specific questions, your best bet is to check with your health care provider. Continue reading

Over 90 Percent of What Planned Parenthood Does, Part 11: Diagnosing and Treating Epididymitis

Welcome to the latest installment of “Over 90 Percent of What Planned Parenthood Does,” a series on Planned Parenthood Advocates of Arizona’s blog that highlights Planned Parenthood’s diverse array of services — the ones Jon Kyl doesn’t know about.

Planned Parenthood Arizona treats epididymitis.This statement might raise a few questions:

Q: What’s epididymitis?
A: Epididymitis is the inflammation, or swelling, of the epididymis, resulting in pain in the scrotum.
Q: That’s great, but what the heck is an epididymis?
A: The epididymis is a tube that is connected to the testicle, and is where sperm are stored before ejaculation. The epididymis is 12 to 15 feet long, but is coiled tightly enough to fit inside the scrotum alongside the testes!


Chlamydia causes 70 percent of epididymitis cases in young heterosexuals. This STD is easily treated but frequently asymptomatic — and prevented by condoms.


So, basically, epididymitis is a condition that can strike anyone whose reproductive anatomy features an epididymis. It is generally caused by a bacterial infection — which may be sexually transmitted, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, or may not be sexually transmitted, such as tuberculosis. Very rarely, epididymitis can be caused by other pathogens, such as viruses, fungi, or parasites. Inflammation of the epididymis can also be caused by the heart medication amiodarone (also known as Pacerone).

Epididymitis most commonly affects males between the ages of 14 and 35. Risk factors, regardless of age, include being uncircumcised, a history of prostate or urinary tract infections, having had surgery in the urinary tract, having a history of a neurogenic bladder, an enlarged prostate, regularly using a catheter, and not using condoms during vaginal or anal intercourse.

The symptoms of epididymitis usually develop over one or two days and can include: Continue reading